1. Manipulating the script of the language: handwriting, spelling and punctuation.
2. Expressing grammatical [syntactic and morphological] relationships at the sentence level.
3. Expressing relationships between parts of a written text through cohesive devices [especially through grammatical devices such as noun-pronoun reference].
4. Using markers in written discourse, in particular:
- introducing an idea
- developing an idea
- transition to another idea
- concluding an idea
- emphasising a point [and indicating main or important information]
- explaining or clarifying a point already made
- anticipating an objection or contrary view
5. Expressing the communicative function of written sentences:
- using explicit markers
- without using explicit markers
6. Expressing information or knowledge in writing:
7. Expressing conceptual meaning
8. Planning and organising written information in expository language
- straight description of phenomena or ideas
- descriptions of process or change of state