Speaking sub-skills

To complement the posts on speaking, especially regarding curriculum design, I have included a list of speaking sub-skills.

1. Producing segmental features of English at word level [especially vowel and consonant sounds, stressed and unstressed syllables]

2. Using suprasegmental features of English [especially intonation, stress in sentences, word-linking and weak forms] accurately in spoken utterances

3. Expressing grammatical [syntactic and morphological] relationships in spoken utterances at the level of the sentence

4. Expressing relationships between parts of a spoken utterance through cohesive devices [especially grammatical cohesion such as noun-pronoun reference]

5. Using markers in spoken discourse, in particular

 introducing an idea

developing an idea

transition to another idea

concluding an idea

emphasising a point to indicate important information

explaining or clarifying a point already made

anticipating an objection or contrary view

6. Sustaining communicative dialog with and without explicit markers

single exchange

double exchange

multiple exchanges

7. Expressing conceptual meaning in spoken utterances

8. Expressing attitudinal meaning in spoken text and utterances [especially by intonation]

9. Marking the main points or important information in spoken text and utterances [especially through emphasis or vocal underlining and through verbal cues]

10. Expressing information or knowledge in informal and semi-formal utterances

11. Planning and organising information in formal expository discourse

oral narrative

oral description of phenomena or ideas

12. oral descriptions of process or change of state

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